Toxicity evaluation of viper snake venoms and invivo neutralization efficacy test of FAV-AFRIQUE and VECSERAantivenoms

Authors

  • Gashaw Gebrewold Ethiopian Public Health Institute Author
  • Timothy J.Colston University of Mississippi Author
  • Brihanu Hurisa Ethiopian Public Health Institute Author
  • Abebe Mengesha Ethiopian Public Health Institute Author
  • Sintayehu Abate Temesgen Ethiopian Public Health Institute Author
  • Kelbessa Urga Ethiopian Public Health Institute Author
  • Kifle Dagne Addis Ababa University Author

Keywords:

Viperidae, Bitisarietunssomalica, Bitis.parviocula, Echispyramidum, Caususrhombeatus, antivenom

Abstract

Introduction: Snake bite is a public health hazard that leads to high morbidity and mortality in the rural areas of Ethiopia. Thousands of injuries associated with bites of venomous snake occur every year in the country. The most common types of snake venoms which cause cytotoxic and hemotoxic clinical effects are viper species.

 

Objective: To determine the lethal values of reference snake venoms in Swiss mice and to assesss efficacy of FAV-AFRIQUE and VECSERAantivenoms drugs.

 

Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate venom toxicity, comparison between routes of administration mice (n-8) as treatment and control, and neutralization test of two polyvalent antivenoms. The categorical bivalent variables were assessed using non-regression analysis as 95% confidence level and Grap pad prizm 5 software and using statistical program (SPSS) of linear modeling.    

 

Result: The lethality values obtained from four venomous snakes indicated that Bitisarietanssomalicaand Echispyramidumare were found to be more toxic than B. parvioculaCaususrhombeatus is less toxic than other species examined. Comparing the two injection routes revealed that viper venoms were 2.5 times less toxic when injected in intraperitoneal compared to intravenous. The point of interception in the four plots indicated that the LD50 of B.a.somalica venom was the most toxic venom followed by E. pyramidum, B. parviocula and C. rhombeatus venoms. In neutralization tests B. parviocula, Echispyramidum and B.a.somalica venoms were achieved when a challenge dose of 3LD50 of venoms were used in mice.

 

Conclusion: The antivenoms study showed the potential of FAV-AFRIQUE as a primary treatment for snake envenomation in Ethiopia but the low cost and availability of VECSERA antivenom make the latter more practical.

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Author Biographies

  • Gashaw Gebrewold, Ethiopian Public Health Institute

    Ethiopian Public Health Institute, P.O.BOX 1242, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

  • Timothy J.Colston, University of Mississippi

    University of Mississippi, Biology Department, University, MSc, USA 38677

  • Brihanu Hurisa, Ethiopian Public Health Institute

    Ethiopian Public Health Institute, P.O.BOX 1242, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

  • Abebe Mengesha, Ethiopian Public Health Institute

    Ethiopian Public Health Institute, P.O.BOX 1242, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

  • Sintayehu Abate Temesgen, Ethiopian Public Health Institute

    Ethiopian Public Health Institute, P.O.BOX 1242, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

  • Kelbessa Urga, Ethiopian Public Health Institute

    Ethiopian Public Health Institute, P.O.BOX 1242, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

  • Kifle Dagne, Addis Ababa University

    Addis Ababa University, Department of Microbial, Cellular and Molecular Biology, P.O. BOX 1176, Ethiopia

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Published

2018-11-20

Issue

Section

Original Article

How to Cite

Gebrewold, G. (2018) “Toxicity evaluation of viper snake venoms and invivo neutralization efficacy test of FAV-AFRIQUE and VECSERAantivenoms”, Ethiopian Journal of Public Health and Nutrition (EJPHN), 2(2), pp. 78–82. Available at: https://ejphn.ephi.gov.et/index.php/ejphn/article/view/134 (Accessed: 18 June 2024).

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