Patterns of thyroid gland function and iodine level in Moringa stenopetala consuming and non-consuming areas in Southern Ethiopia

A Case-Control study

Authors

  • Asfaw Debella Ethiopian Public Health Institute Author
  • Eyasu Makonnen Addis Ababa University Author
  • Eskeziyaw Agedew Debremarkos University Author
  • Terefe Gelibo ICAPat Columbia University Author
  • Alemayehu Bekele CDT-Africa Author
  • Solomon Worku St. Paul Millennium Medical College Author
  • Ashenif Tadele Ethiopian Biodiversity Institute Author
  • Direselign Misker Arba Minch University Author
  • Yalemtsehay Mekonnen Addis Ababa University Author
  • Adamu Belay Ethiopian Public Health Institute Author
  • Feyissa Challa Ethiopian Public Health Institute Author
  • Temsgen Awoke Ethiopian Public Health Institute Author
  • Negero Gemeda Ethiopian Public Health Institute Author
  • Zeleke Geto Wollo University Author
  • Nahom Tefera Ethiopian Public Health Institute Author
  • Adisu Legesse Ethiopian Public Health Institute Author
  • Chere Tadesse Ethiopian Public Health Institute Author
  • Nigat Ashenafi Ethiopian Public Health Institute Author
  • Dawit Challa Ethiopian Public Health Institute Author
  • Seid Kassaw Ethiopian Public Health Institute Author
  • Simon Shiberu Arba Minch University Author

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.20372/ejphn.v6i2.206

Keywords:

Moringa stenopetala, case-control, thyroid gland function, iodine level

Abstract

Background: Moringa stenopetala is widely used as food, fodder and medicine in the South and South-western areas of Ethiopia. Association of M. stenopetala consumption with occurrence of goiter is still controversial. This study was aimed to investigate the association of consumption of M. stenopetala with thyroid function as well as urine iodine level, and to study iodized salt availability and utilization.

Methods: A community based unmatched case-control study was conducted from August to September, 2016. Data collection was done using WHO NCD Steps and locally constructed structured questionnaires. Physical measurements and clinical parameters were determined. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 22. Multivariate data analyses were performed to determine the associated factors based on p-value less than 0.05 and odd ratio with 95% confidence level.

Result: There was no significant difference in the mean levels of T3, T4 and TSH among case and control study participants in moringa consuming and non-consuming areas. The mean total T4 and T3 values were within the normal range of interval of the test kits. Iodized salt test indicated the presence of sufficient iodine (> 15 ppm) in more than 40% of households of the study area. Thyroid gland enlargement was not observed in the majority (> 90%) of the study participants. Urine iodine level was also normal in the majority of female participants.

Conclusion: M. stenopetala consumption did not cause significant effect on thyroid gland function and urine iodine. There was no significant association between consumption of M. stenopetala and occurrence of goiter.

Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

  • Asfaw Debella, Ethiopian Public Health Institute

    Ethiopian Public Health Institute

  • Eyasu Makonnen, Addis Ababa University

    College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

  • Eskeziyaw Agedew, Debremarkos University

    Debre Markos University, Debre Markos, Ethiopia

  • Terefe Gelibo, ICAPat Columbia University

    ICAP at Columbia University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

  • Alemayehu Bekele, CDT-Africa

    CDT-Africa, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

  • Solomon Worku, St. Paul Millennium Medical College

    St. Paul Millennium Medical College, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

  • Ashenif Tadele, Ethiopian Biodiversity Institute

    Ethiopian Public Health Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

  • Direselign Misker, Arba Minch University

    Arba Minch University, Arba Minch, Ethiopia

  • Yalemtsehay Mekonnen, Addis Ababa University

    College of Natural and Computational Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

  • Adamu Belay, Ethiopian Public Health Institute

    Ethiopian Public Health Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

  • Feyissa Challa, Ethiopian Public Health Institute

    Ethiopian Public Health Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

  • Temsgen Awoke, Ethiopian Public Health Institute

    Ethiopian Public Health Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

  • Negero Gemeda, Ethiopian Public Health Institute

    Ethiopian Public Health Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

  • Zeleke Geto, Wollo University

    College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Wollo University, Dessie, Ethiopia

  • Nahom Tefera, Ethiopian Public Health Institute

    Ethiopian Public Health Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

  • Adisu Legesse, Ethiopian Public Health Institute

    Ethiopian Public Health Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

  • Chere Tadesse, Ethiopian Public Health Institute

    Ethiopian Public Health Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

  • Nigat Ashenafi, Ethiopian Public Health Institute

    Ethiopian Public Health Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

  • Dawit Challa, Ethiopian Public Health Institute

    Ethiopian Public Health Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

  • Seid Kassaw, Ethiopian Public Health Institute

    Ethiopian Public Health Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

  • Simon Shiberu, Arba Minch University

    Arba Minch University, Arba Minch, Ethiopia

References

Abuye C, Omwega AM & Imungi JK (1999). Familial tendency and dietary association of goiter in Gamo-Gofa, Ethiopia. East African Medical Journal, 76:447-451.

Ahmed Z, Khan MA, Haq AU & Rehman SAJU (2009). Effect of Race, Gender and Age on Thyroid and Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Level in North West Frontier Province, Pakistan. Journal of Ayub Medical College Abbottabad, 3: 21-24.

Anjelo A (2009). Screening Moringa accessions for resistance to moringa moth, Noorda Blitealis walker (Crambidae: Nooridae). Indian Journal of Forestry, 32(2):243-250.

Armelle de SS & Melanie B (2010). Growing and Processing of Moringa Leaves. Moringa Association of Ghana, Pp 27-29.

Becker DV, Bigos ST & Gaitan E (1993). Optimal use of blood tests for assessment of thyroid function (letter). Journal of the American Medical Association, 269:273.

Bennett RN, Mellon FA, Foidl N, Pratt JH, Dupont MS, Perkins L & Kroon PA (2003). Profiling Glucosinolates and Phenolics in Vegetative and Reproductive Tissues of the Multi-Purpose Trees Moringa oleifera L. (Horseradish Tree) and Moringa stenopetala L. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 51: 3546-3553.

Debela L (2015). Evaluation of the acute and sub-chronic toxicity of aqueous extracts of leaves of Moringa stenopetala on some blood parameters and histopathology of thyroid gland, pancreas and adrenal gland in rats, MSc thesis in human anatomy, School of Graduate Studies, Addis Ababa University.

Dietz HM, King RD, Shephard DAL & Turvey A (1987). Antinutritional and toxic effects of glucosinolates and glucosinolate breakdown products. Food and Hum Nutrition, 41F: 213-224

Edwards S, Tadesse M, Demissew S & Hedberg J (2002). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea: Mangnoliaceae to Flacourtiacea, the National Herbarium, Ethiopia. Pp 155-163.

Engels JMM & Göttsch E (1991). Konso agriculture and its plant genetic resources. In: Engels JMM, Hawkes JG & Worede M (Eds). Plant Genetic Resources of Ethiopia. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. Pp 169-186.

Fisher DA (1996). Physiological variations in thyroid hormones; physiological and pathophysiological considerations. Clinical Chemistry, 42:135-139.

Ganong WF (1995). Review of medical physiology. Journal of Appleton and Lange, Connecticut. Pp 290-305.

Huang YH, Tsai MM & Lin KH (2008). Thyroid hormone dependent regulation of target genes and their physiological significance. Chang Gung Medical Journal, 31: 325-334.

Katayev A, Balciza C & Seccombe DW (2010). Establishing Reference Intervals for Clinical Laboratory Test Results Is There a Better Way? American Journal of Clinical Pathology.133:180 - 186

Lamfon HA (2008). Thyroid Disorders in Makkah, Saudi Arabia. Ozean Journal of Applied Sciences, 1(1):13.

Löhr B, El-Samalouti V & Junge Wl (2009). Reference Range Study for Various Parameters on Roche Clinical Chemistry Analyzers. Clinical Laboratory, 55:465-471.

Mariotti S (2011). Physiology of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary Thyroidal System. Www.thyroidmanager.org. Accessed on May, 15, 2019.

Mekonen A & Gebreyesus T (2000). Chemical investigation of leaves of Moringa stenopetala. Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia, 14: 51-55.

Mekonnen Y & Dräger B (2003). Glucosinolate in Moringa stenopetala. Planta Medica, 69: 380-382.

Nishikawa M, Inada M & Naito K (1981). Age related Changes of serum 3, 3 iodothyronine, 3, 5 diiodothyronine and 3, 5 – diiodothyronine concentration in man. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 52: 517-22.

Robert K, Mulrray M, Daryl K, Granner L, Peter A & Mayes K (1993). Harpers Biochemistry, 509-514.

Steinmaus C, Miller MD & Howd R (2007). Impact of smoking and Thiocyanate on perchlorate and thyroid hormone associations in the 2001-2002 national health and nutrition examination survey. Environmental Health Perspectives, 115: 1333-1338.

Van Etten CH (1969). Goitrogens. In: Liener, I.E., Ed., Toxic Constituents of Plant Foodstuffs, Academic Press Publications, New York, 103-142.

Wheeler MH & Lazarus JH (1994). Diseases of the Thyroid. London, Glasgow, Weinheim, New York, Tokyo, Melbourne, Madras: Chapman and Hall Medical. Pp 107-115.

Tietz NW (1995). Clinical Guide to Laboratory Tests (2006). 4th edition. St. Louis (MO): Alan HB Wu, Ed., Saunders Elsevier.

Yisehak K, Solomon M & Tadelle M (2011). Contribution of Moringa (Moringa stenopetala) a highly nutritious vegetable tree, for food security in south Ethiopia. Asian Journal of Applied Sciences, 4(5): 477-488.

Zekewos A (2013). Thyroid function profile, and its association to consumption of cassava and Moringa stenopetala in pregnant women. Advances in Biological Chemistry, 3: 448-454.

Downloads

Published

2023-07-31

Issue

Section

Original Article

Categories

How to Cite

Debella, A. (2023) “Patterns of thyroid gland function and iodine level in Moringa stenopetala consuming and non-consuming areas in Southern Ethiopia: A Case-Control study”, Ethiopian Journal of Public Health and Nutrition (EJPHN), 6(2), pp. 85–93. doi:10.20372/ejphn.v6i2.206.

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 > >> 

Similar Articles

1-10 of 47

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.